What are Containers?
So there is a huge similarity at face value between Containers and Virtual Machines and they can both be used for similar purposes. They are however completely different technologies with different strengths and weak...
What are Containers?
So there is a huge similarity at face value between Containers and Virtual Machines and they can both be used for similar purposes. They are however completely different technologies with different strengths and weaknesses.
Are literally just that. They partition off resources within your machine and run a complete / alternate operating System within that partition, whether it be Linux or something else. The main feature here is that you can run any (supported) Operating System, not just Linux, and it runs a completely different Operating System kernel to whatever is running on the host computer. The downside is that you end up running multiple OS kernel’s in parallel, which can be a drain on the system in terms of memory and additional processes.
Are a mechanism supported by the Linux kernel that allow soft
partitions between resources in such a way that you can run what look like different OS kernel’s in dedicated areas of shared disk, but are in fact just processes under a single Linux Kernel. So whereas all containers will be running under the SAME instance of the Linux Kernel (so there is no scope for running different versions of Linux or other Operating Systems) it does mean that containers are very light-weight
. (so you can run lots
with very little overhead)
What are they good for?
- Virtual Machines - running different versions of Linux, running different Operating Systems, anything that required hard partitions between host resources and resources available to the virtual system.
- Containers - running different (partitioned) applications under one instance of the Linux Kernel with soft partitions between resources.
There are a number of different technologies which use the containerisation
feature of the Linux kernel, probably the most well-known is docker
. This has become the goto
for developers who want to deploy their applications inside a ‘known’ good Linux environment. An application container will include a complete file-system tree containing all dependencies (libraries etc) required for the application to run. This means it’s relatively in-sensitive to the specific kernel the host is running, but on the other hand it includes lots of things that might already exist on the host that it really doesn’t need
. Whereas this could be considered a feature
from a security perspective, because the entire application and all dependencies are a known quantity
, historically I think that this feature would have been referred to as bloatware
Other instances include things like snaps
, both also typically used for distributing software. snap
for example has been standard on Ubuntu for some time and if you do;
sudo snap list
You should see some applications that are installed on your machine are actually containerised versions of the application. (which means they will take up more space, be slower to launch, take more resource etc, BUT, will be more secure…)
Running with LXD
My example is going to utilise a project called LXD
, which is one of the few not
aimed at application packaging, but rather as competition for Virtual Machines.
I’m starting with a clean machine with 4GB of RAM and 150Gb of disk space, here in the Office, behing a NAT / broadband firewall. My aim is to be able to efficiently split the machine into containers such that I can run a dedicated private WordPress instance in each container and make each WordPress instance available on the Internet under it’s own unique domain name.
Setting up my Storage
So the first thing I’ll mention is that I’m working as root
. If you wish to do this as a user
, then all commands will need to be prefixed with sudo
. When I prefix a $
before a command, this is to indicate a root
prompt and it doesn’t form a part of the command.
The first thing I’m going to do is to check I have some storage ready for use by LXD. At the moment I have a 150Gb disk that’s partitioned off with a root filesystem, some swap space, the rest as empty space that I can allocate to LXD.
$ fdisk -l /dev/vda
Disk /dev/vda: 150 GiB, 161061273600 bytes, 314572800 sectors
Device Start End Sectors Size Type
/dev/vda1 2048 4095 2048 1M BIOS boot
/dev/vda2 4096 41947135 41943040 20G Linux filesystem
/dev/vda3 41947136 50335743 8388608 4G Linux swap
/dev/vda4 50335744 314570751 264235008 126G Linux filesystem
The next thing, just to make life interesting, under Ubuntu the lxd
software is actually packaged using snap
, so the container software comes, and will run in, a container. I guess this is an example of what developers refer to as ‘eating their own dogfood’
. So to install LXD we need;
$ snap install lxd
2023-09-22T11:25:42Z INFO Waiting for automatic snapd restart...
lxd 5.17-e5ead86 from Canonical✓ installed
Now I’m ready to get going, LXD
will do all the heavy lifting for me. I’m using defaults for everything except;
- Storage, I’m going to ask for LVM on disk partition /dev/vda4
- Visibility, make LXD available over the network so I can configure using my browser
$ lxd init
Would you like to use LXD clustering? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Do you want to configure a new storage pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
Name of the new storage pool [default=default]:
Name of the storage backend to use (btrfs, ceph, dir, lvm, zfs) [default=zfs]: lvm
Create a new LVM pool? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
Would you like to use an existing empty block device (e.g. a disk or partition)? (yes/no) [default=no]: yes
Path to the existing block device: /dev/vda4
Would you like to connect to a MAAS server? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Would you like to create a new local network bridge? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
What should the new bridge be called? [default=lxdbr0]:
What IPv4 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]:
What IPv6 address should be used? (CIDR subnet notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]:
Would you like the LXD server to be available over the network? (yes/no) [default=no]: yes
Address to bind LXD to (not including port) [default=all]:
Port to bind LXD to [default=8443]:
Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically? (yes/no) [default=yes]:
Would you like a YAML "lxd init" preseed to be printed? (yes/no) [default=no]:
Notably this will have configured two things to be aware of;
- A storage pool, which is where containers will be stored
LV VG Attr LSize Pool Origin Data% Meta%
LXDThinPool default twi-a-tz-- <125.75g 0.00 10.42
- A local network bridge, which is how containers will connect to the host / internet
$ brctl show
bridge name bridge id STP enabled interfaces
lxdbr0 8000.00163eee4b9a no
Working with LXD in a Browser
So for some strange reason, we need to explicitly enable the browser User Interface with;
$ snap set lxd ui.enable=true
$ systemctl reload snap.lxd.daemon
Don’t be tempted by the fact LXD is actually running a web server already, it’s not going to let you log in until you explicitly enable it. So, in this example my host machine is called wp
, so to get the user interface we point our browser at; https://wp:8443
, the port is #8443
because this is the port we selected during lxd init
First off you’ll need to create a new certificate. So after clicking on Create
you will be offered the option to Generate
, click this. It will ask you about passwords, I clicked on skip
. Now you will need to download the crt
. I would recommend when you do this you make sure you keep it somewhere safe. If you end up connecting to multiple LXD servers, using the same certificate is going to save time and confusion as the stock LXD configuration doesn’t appear to be terribly good at naming certificates.
Now copy the crt
file to the server (wp
) and run the trust
command listed on the browser page to get the server to trust that certificate. After that, select your browser from the tabbed list on the screen and download the pfx
file, then follow the instructions on the screen to import the pfx
file into the browser’s certificate store. It seems like a pain, however once done you have a fairly secure login mechanism and you don’t need to worry about passwords.
Once this is done, it might let you in, or you might need to restart your browser. All being well you should see something like this;
As I said initially, I’m doing this to host WordPress instances, so next we’re going to try to create some containers running Ubuntu Server into which I can install Wordpress.
My first container
So, clicking on Create
prompts with a create instance form. In this instance I’m going to call it madpenguin
. At this point I need to specify what sort of base image
I’m going to use. Typically I can pick from a number of Linux variants by clicking on Browse
I choose Ubuntu / lunar (23.04) / cloud (lightweight server option);
There are a bunch of things that can be configured at this point, but for now I’m clicking Create and start
. This gives a nice on-screen progress of the setup, first time around it needs to download the Ubuntu image which takes a few seconds, then I’m left with an Instances
display showing my nice shiny new container.
If I highlight the container and click, it opens up a panel on the right hand side of the screen to show me some details. Notably that it is using the default
profile and attached to the default bridge (lxdbr0
) we created during lxd init
There are also two buttons, console and terminal which give us a Window into the container. Clicking on terminal
gives a terminal session inside
the container. Running ps ax
will show that we have a completely isolated / basic Linux system. df -h
will show we have 10G
of disk space available.
So the first relatively obvious issue is that 10G
isn’t going to go very far. If we take a look at storage pools
on the menu, we see the pool we set up earlier.
Currently that’s showing 15.6Gb of 135Gb used. However the majority of this will be metadata and some actual usage from our container. If we go back to the instances
, click on madpenguin
and then configuration
, and then storage
, then "edit
So if we change that to 25 (GB) and click Save
(this will be instant
) then go back and look at our terminal session, we can see the container has been instantly resized in terms of both the backing store and the file-system.
$ df -h
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/default/containers_madpenguin 23G 633M 22G 3% /
Looking back at the storage pool however there is no change, we’re still seeing 15.6G
used from 135G
. This what thin-provisioning
looks like! It’s just allocated the additional space, but not actually called it down
so to speak.
The next question I have is, but how fast is it
? Well in terms of code actually running, it should be > 95% of the speed outside the container, so there is very little loss. In terms of diskIO
, which is the usual suspect when looking to bottlenecks, I installed fio
and ran a basic test. Now, there will be lots of caching in play here, so treat this as you would any statistic, but as a general indicator;
$ fio --name=read_throughput --directory=fio --numjobs=16 --size=1G \
--time_based --runtime=60s --ramp_time=2s --ioengine=libaio \
--direct=1 --verify=0 --bs=1M --iodepth=64 --rw=read \
So this is a read test using 1G
as the storage blob (I could use more, but it’s all subject to the resources available on the host machine) … and it’s making use of cache, memory and CPU’s, as containers can.
# From the summary;
Run status group 0 (all jobs):
READ: bw=2309MiB/s (2421MB/s), 2309MiB/s-2309MiB/s (2421MB/s-2421MB/s)
io=136GiB (146GB), run=60500-60500msec
Disk stats (read/write):
vda: ios=140711/17, merge=2195689/13, ticks=60273445/7589
Now this is only a read test, and there will be caching etc etc, however a read speed of 2.3G / sec isn’t too bad and bodes well for effective WordPress performance. And, if you’d not already guessed, I’m not using a physical
machine for this, my 4G machine with 150Gb of storage space is actually a virtual machine
, so this is a physical machine, running a virtual machine, then LXD containers inside the virtual machine. And it’s still showing 2.3G / sec.
So there are a few pre-requisites for Wordpress which I’ll install next, the main component that needs to be configured being nginx
, which will be the Web Server.
$ apt update
$ apt upgrade
$ apt install ghostscript mysql-server php php-bcmath php-curl php-imagick \
php-intl php-json php-mbstring php-mysql php-xml php-zip \
So after installing a standard WordPress template into /etc/nginx/sites-available
and enabling it, I can see nginx
is now listening on port 443
Exposing ports inside containers
By default, the container is a part of a private network that’s not visible to the outside world, so initially I want to make it available on my local network. I can do this on the LXD control panel by going to Profiles
and clicking Create Profile
. In this instance I’m going to call it “webserver_443” and click on Create
This profile will inherit from default
apart from the bit I’m now about to override. Going into configuration
on the profile, I can click on YAML Configuration
and then edit profile
, then I need to paste in some configuration;
description: Expose port 443 on the local network
How did I know that’s how you redirect a port? Easy, it’s in the LXD documentation
… it’s a shame they don’t have a more expansive User Interface for this sort of thing, but there are many options which would in itself make the UI quite complicated. Once you’ve done it (or see it) once, it’s just a matter of copy and paste. Once the configuration is changed, I’m going back into the madpenguin
instance configuration profile, clicking edit
and I’m going to add the profile webserver_443
to the instance.
If I now look in my host machine (wp
) it’s listening on port 443
. So if I go back to my browser, in a new tab I enter; https://wp:443
, I’m seeing a 404 not found
. (because the webserver is running, but we’ve not installed WordPress yet)
So this is enabling the path;
Next I need to dump a WordPress zip
file into the container;
$ wget https://wordpress.org/latest.zip
--2023-09-22 15:06:23-- https://wordpress.org/latest.zip
Saving to: ‘latest.zip’
latest.zip 100%[========================================>] 23.78M 6.40MB/s in 4.3s
2023-09-22 15:06:28 (5.49 MB/s) - ‘latest.zip’ saved [24938800/24938800]
$ unzip latest.zip
$ mv wordpress/* .
$ rmdir wordpress
$ rm latest.zip
$ chown -R www-data:www-data .
Now at this point we should have a WordPress installation ready to roll. Two things need doing before the Installation can go ahead;
- I need an entry in my local hosts file for the domain I want to install to. In this case I’m adding an entry to /etc/hosts for the IP address of my local server, with the name madpenguin.uk. (Wordpress is quite picky about installing onto a real name and doesn’t like changing it later)
- We need a MySQL account account to install to, so I’m going to add one via the MySQL shell;
mysql> create database wp_madpenguin;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> create user madpenguin identified by 'secret_password';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> grant all on wp_madpenguin.* to 'madpenguin'@'%';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
So going back to the browser screen now and looking at https://madpenguin.uk
I’m seeing the WordPress installer;
And now we seem to have a working WordPress installation, inside a container, inside a virtual machine running on a computer on a local office network. Is it quick, I’ve never seen such a speedy WordPress installation, albeit there’s no data in there yet.
Local WordPress meets World
So this isn’t always the best idea with regards to hosting sites on the end of a broadband connection, however so long as you don’t attract too much traffic you might be surprised.
Cloudflare Zero Trust tunnels
As a great CloudFlare fan, I’m going to publish this container via a CloudFlare tunnel (this is all free-tier, I’m not using anything chargeable except a domain name). This involves me heading off to my CloudFlare control panel and setting up a new Tunnel.
It’s a relatively (if not amazingly) straightforward process, I add a tunnel (in this case wp-demo
), then save it away and we get a prompt for Operating System and architecture.
In this case I’m selecting Debian (which is close enough to Ubuntu) and 64-bit, then I’m clicking copy from the curl
script below. Now going to the container console, just paste in the script and click enter. This will install the CloudFlare tunnel software AND connect the tunnel up.
Now in the Tunnel configuration, I can assign a public domain name / URL, and tell it where it terminates inside the container, and save it away. (Note;
if you try this and your local service is running https
, as ours is, you will need to go into additional settings and flip the switch to disable certificate verification - because we’re using self-signed keys)
We should now see a health
indicator on the Tunnel control panel to indicate it’s all working.
If we look at https://wp-demo.madpenguin.uk
, we should now see the default / empty Wordpress instance.
I may add to this later, but for now, you’re looking at a WordPress site, running in a container, which is running in a virtual machine, which is running on a desktop computer, connected to the Internet via a broadband connection. (and published via a CloudFlare ZeroTrust Tunnel).
- how fast is it looking for you?
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